Category: Sample Downloads


By cscscholarship,



Congratulations to all of you, who are selected by different Universities for Scholarship. Welcome to all of you in CHINA. This list basically contain all basic Items that a newly admitted student may require for its initial Use. Each and every thing is available in china. In your initial days, you cannot find a proper place to buy or at higher prices. I suggest you to buy all the necessary thing and shortlist this list according to your luggage requirement by Air Company or according to your destination city.


  • Clothes
No. Shopping Items Quantity Suggestions
1 Jeans 3-4 Suggest you to buy some branded.
2 T-Shirt/ Dress Shirt 6-7 Lil bit costly in china, but you can buy for initial use.
3 Dress pent 3-4 If you have fitting issue then better to buy from Pakistan
4 Shalwar Kameez 1-2 You must take these clothes for cultural events.
5 Trouser 1-2
6 Warm cap, Bunyan, Underware, Socks 1-2
7 Warm Clothes 1-2
8 Jersy/Sweater Try to buy some branded like, Oxford etc.
9 Cultural Dress To participate in cultural event, you must have cultural dress to do so. Like, Traditional cap, Shalwar Qameez, Shawal, Ajrak


  • Foot wear
1 Dress Shoes 1 Student come to North or west of china, can buy it from china. Temp (<-10)
2 Athletic Shoes 1 Sports Man must take shoes like Cheeta, nike etc.
3 Sandal Chappal Shoes 1
4 Slipper 1 For indoor use
5 Boot Polish and Brush/ Shoes Spray 1


  • Personal Hygiene & Care Items
1 Towel 1
2 Shaving Box 1
3 Shampoo, Lotion, Cold Cream & Soap 1 For initial use, you can buy it from Pakistan. And then you can buy it from china.
4 Deodorant/ Perfume 1 Suggest you to buy it from Pakistan (Your favorite one)
5 Hair Oil, Mirror & Comb etc. 1 If someone really like to use Mustered oil then must take it from Pakistan.
6 Nail Cutter 1
7 Tooth brush and paste 1 If someone use some medicated paste then buy it from Pakistan.
8 Feminine Hygiene Products 1 It is better to bring Sanitary Pads, Hair removing cream, Wax, etc. for your initial use.


  • Books
1 Quran-e-Majeed & Religious book Different kind of Software available on internet, but if you are interested in Tafseer/ translation.
2 Books Kindly choose book according to luggage weight.
3 Dictionary (English to Chinese) 1 Install application in your android phone for Chinese translation like, Pleco, Hanping, Baidu Translator or you can buy a pocket dictionary.


  • Medicine

These are some general kind of medicines or you can consult any doctor as well.

1 Disprin 20 Tablets
2 Panadol Extra 10 Tablets
3 Voltral 10 Tablets
4 Avil 10 Tablets
5 Buscopan 10 Tablets
6 Cofcol 10 Tablets
7 Brufen 10 Tablets
8 Trisil 10 Tablets
9 Erythrocin 10 Tablets
10 Burnol 1 Tube
11 Eye and ear drops 1
12 Bandage rolls, bandage cotton 1
13 Skin ointments 1
14 Vabramycin 1 Capsules
15 Vicks Vapourb 1  
16 Fever Thermometer 1  
17 Herbal Medicines Johar Joshanda, Ispaghol, Hajmola etc.
18 Flagyl 10 Tablets
19 Laxoberon 10 Tablets


  • Food Stuff
1 Masala Jaat   Baryani, chicken, Haleem, (National or Shaan )
2 Achar, Murabba  
3 Tea   Lipton, supreme tea
4 Daal & Baisan  
5 Herbal Ingredients  
6 Sweet Dishes   Custard, Sheer khorma,  etc.



  • Food preparation utensils

You can buy these stuff from china easily but you can buy simple and basic one for initial use.

1 Tawwa (Must) 1
2 Frying pan (Non-Stick) 1 You can buy it from china but little bit costly from Pakistan.
3 Spoons & Fork 3-4
4 Kitchen Knife 1
5 Kitchen Cutting Board 1
6 Plates 2-3
7 Glass/Cup 1-2


  • Miscellaneous
1 Scissors 1  
2 Safety Pins  
3 Sewing Thread  
4 Needles  
5 Spare Buttons and Hooks  
6 Small tools like penknife, screw driver etc.  
7 Umbrella Must bring it, if you are going to some rainy city.
8 Spare Spectacles and Spectacle Prescription If you use spectacles then you should have spare spectacles
9 Stapler with pins 1  
10 Hanger 12  
11 Padlock 1-2  
12 Pakistan Flag+ National Portraits poster (Quid-e-Azam etc, ) 1 Flag should be large one to display during cultural festival.
13 Computer Software/USB Bootable CD/DVD of window OS
14 Torch
15 Rubber Bands 15-20
16 Sports Goods Take Cricket Bat, Good Quality Insulation tape.
17 Jaae-Nemaz & Tasbeeh 1


  • Hand carry luggage

You are allowed to take only one piece of luggage with you in aircraft. Keep all the important documents on this hand bag only.

1 All Educational Documents
2 University Doc, Visa, Admission form, Passport etc.
3 Your Traveler Checks, Bank DD if any,
4 Address Book, telephone diary
5 Air Sickness Pills
6 Any other Stuff you cannot to lose.



  • Try to buy branded thing of good quality because of little cheap then China.
  • This list consist of basic thing that you may need in china. Final list selection up to you.
  • Girls should buy their cosmetics from Pakistan. Sudden change may be problematic. After that, you can buy it from china.


 Best Regards!

Muhammad Asim Amin


Visa form filled Sample

By cscscholarship,


Visa form filled Sample

here is sample of Visa form, you can download and filled for yourself according to sample




Different Sample Email to Professor for Acceptance letter

By cscscholarship,

Different Sample Email to Professor for Acceptance

when you want to apply for Scholarship the Acceptance letter  is not necessary except some universities, you need to write a formal email to professor  who is very close to your research topic or interest, do not send one email to every professor, Professors are connected each other they discussed your email with other professor. so if you send email to every professor just changing your topic and research according to professor they will ignore your application and click into black list


here is the sample of Email to Professor for Acceptance letter

Different Sample Email to Professor for Acceptance


Letter Of Recommendation

By cscscholarship,

Letter Of Recommendation

Colleges often ask for two or three recommendation letters from people who know you well. These letters should be written by someone who can describe your skills, accomplishments and personality. Colleges value recommendations because they: Reveal things about you that grades and test scores can’t.

Click on Below link and download Letter Of Recommendation

Letter Of Recommendation

StudyPlan for Graduate Studies

By cscscholarship,

StudyPlan for Graduate Studies

Academic Background:I have completed my undergraduate studies in Electrical engineering from “ABCDUniversity of Engineering and Technology”, , Pakistan, in March 2012, with aCGPA of 3.86 out of 4.00. I was an active somehow indulgent student among others during my undergraduate studies, very often involved in many curricular and co-curricular activities. In fact, I was up to the mark and honored in the top 1’slist of 120 students in my undergraduate class. If observed by the meritoriousefforts I remain very competent and I have passed all entrance tests conductedby the academic institution of my education with high achievements and securedoverall 4th place in the whole district.I did my final year thesis project on “Design, development and fabrication ofunder/over voltage relay using static devices” with the group of five membersin which I was made the Group Leader. The fabricated relay can be used for theautomatic protection of house hold appliances and power system against voltagerelated problems. In this project, I learned and researched automated controland protection using Circuit Breakers and Relays along with other high speedautomatic control and protecting equipment’s involved in automation of themodern systems. While working on this project I found strong motivation inmyself towards graduate study and research in the area of power systemautomation.At present, I am working as a Maintenance Engineer in Dawlance Group of Companies(the leading household appliances company in Pakistan); my job’s majorresponsibilities include; Maintenance and Automation of industry’s power systemand machines along with the planning and the proper allocation of availableresources to achieve the smooth and efficient operation of the plant byconducting routine and reactive preventive maintenance activities. Here, inDawlance, I have learned, researched and practically implemented theapplications of electrical automation engineering in manufacturing processalong with the extensive knowledge of Electrical automation devices likedigital relays, vacuum and oil circuit breakers, Programmable LogicControllers, Programmable automation controllers , Human Machine Interface andinstrumentation devices. Furthermore, I Led the project “Energy saving by theoptimization of electric motor usage” with annual savings of 1.2 Million PKR byconducting efficiency analysis, Right sizing of installed motors, formulatingthe saving calculations and obtaining USAID OFFER by negotiations with vendorsand USAID audit authorities.Also because of ardent interest and motivation towards power system automation,I was selected for 16 weeks internship in National Transmission & DispatchCompany; the sole electric power transmission company of Pakistan. Where Igained quality level knowledge and working experience about Grid SystemOperations (GSO), Protection and Instrumentation (P & I), SCADA, Meteringand Testing (M & T). Along with these technical aspects I also earned practicalknowledge about transmission system planning including Power Flow Studies,Reactive power compensation studies, Reliability and Stability Analysis withrespect to interconnection of distributed generation with transmission system.My work at NTDC was highly praised and I was awarded with the certificate of appreciation by the senior management.

My Personality:By fact, I am socially active person with friendly nature, a good communicatorindeed who is blessed with many friends. I keep a keen view to the reality oflife thus approach people with positive mind and attitude and always prove tobe helpful with honest efforts and true dedication. Besides that I always feelvery joyous and fortunate to meet and greet people belonging to differentbackgrounds and cultures. As such meetings are always important because they prove to be beneficial in future also it makes things easy to cope whether one works or studies in his own country or outside the country.

Study Plan in China:I would like to apply for the Master’s Degree in Electrical Power system and its automation in China because from my current industrial job experience,past internship and my final year project I come to know the vast practical applications of the automation engineering, this caught my attention and created a thirst of knowledge in me to study my chosen course. My motto is to work in an international field related to Electrical Engineering. Therefore, I would like to gain deeper theoretical and practical knowledge in starting and managing most innovative projects. During my studies, with great hidden abilities in myself I will try to come up with the best of everything; to accompany the professors and university colleagues in carrying out research and exploring for immense exciting industrial mysteries in the field of power system Automation. After completion of my master’s studies I hope to be able to take part in maximizing my country’s research technology in such fields to benefit its economy and enhance the living standards of my compatriots.I believe that this Masters Program will provide me with the chance to get toknow with Electrical systems and affiliates me dedicatedly to the industries,which are living examples of the art of Electrical and automation engineering.I hope that I can gain more experience in dealing with situations, peoples,systems and demands which will be of a great help in my future career.

Reasons to study in China: Now the question arises, “Why China?” Reading the books, watching the news, analyzing and observing the people of China, I am really impressed by the way these individuals have proved themselves to be dedicated to their work and with true efforts they have set China as a successful example for other third world or developed countries. The fast-growing economy, technological advancement and the global ranking education institutes of China with high reputation makes a great aspiration to the students and professionals for the better career perspectives. Thus such kind of positivity has boosted my confidence further and I am highly satisfied with the decision I have taken. Moreover,China’s diverse cultural norms and values, the famous gentle hospitality of its people and Pakistan-China all weather friendly relations since past to promote bilateral trade , acceptance and peace to both sides in great clarity make me feel China as my second homeland; also my family fully supports my choice forChina being my preference for graduate studies. All these reasons put together make China an ideal place for me to do my Masters degree.Concluding it, with high hopes I believe this application will receive your favourable consideration and I will be happy to provide any additional information you may need. I look forward to receiving your reply.




CV and Resume

By cscscholarship,

Here is the sample of CV and Resume

Click on Below link and download the sample, don’t try to copy paste. try to get idea and make it for yourself .

This handout explains what a curriculum vitae (CV) is, how it differs from a resume, and how you can decide which one to use. It also includes a list of campus resources, helpful online tips, and recommended reference books. (Please note that this handout covers American usage of the terms “CV” and “resume.” The word “resume” may also be spelled “resumé” or “résumé.”)



To decide whether to submit a CV or a resume, you will need to determine which of them most appropriately fits the criteria provided by the employer, grant agency, or scholarship or internship committee who will be reading your application. Often, the application instructions for a particular position will state whether a CV or resume is requested. If you are unsure, it is worth your time to contact the agency and ask which would be most appropriate for the position.


Let’s start with a quick overview of resumes, since they are more familiar to most American writers than CVs. A typical resume is a general and concise introduction of your experiences and skills as they relate to a particular career or position that you are aiming to acquire. As such, a resume may have to be altered for each position that you are applying for so as to emphasize those skills and experiences most relevant to the work. Resumes are usually no more than one page in length. They are often accompanied by cover letters, which provide a permanent written record of the transmittal of the resume (what is being sent, to whom it is being sent, and who sent it).

A typical resume will include the following information:

  • Name and Contact Information: your residential address might be most appropriate, especially if you do not want your current employer to know that you are looking for another job!
  • Education: a listing of your degrees or certifications and educational institutions or programs.
  • Work Experience: names of the companies or organizations that you have worked for, the location of each company, the dates worked, your job title, and duties performed.

In contrast, a CV is a fairly detailed overview of your life’s accomplishments, especially those most relevant to the realm of academia. As such, these documents have their greatest utility in the pursuit of a job in academia or research. Because academic researchers are often working on and completing many projects and teaching responsibilities simultaneously, it is wise to think of a CV as a living document that will need to be updated frequently. A typical CV for someone in the beginning stages of his or her graduate school career might only be two or three pages in length, while the number of pages of a more seasoned researcher’s CV may run into the double digits. In both CVs and resumes, information within sections is usually organized chronologically.

A typical CV will include the following information:

  • Name and Contact Information: contact information for your current institution or place of employment may work best, unless you do not want your colleagues to know that you are job-hunting.
  • Areas of Interest: a listing of your varied academic interests.
  • Education: a list of your degrees earned or in progress, institutions, and years of graduation. You may also include the titles of your dissertation or thesis here.
  • Grants, Honors and Awards: a list of grants received, honors bestowed upon you for your work, and awards you may have received for teaching or service.
  • Publications and Presentations: a list of your published articles and books, as well presentations given at conferences. If there are many of both, you might consider having one section for publications and another for presentations.
  • Employment and Experience: this section may include separate lists of teaching experiences, laboratory experiences, field experiences, volunteer work, leadership, or other relevant experiences.
  • Scholarly or Professional Memberships: a listing of the professional organizations of which you are a member. If you have held an office or position in a particular organization, you can either say so here or leave this information for the experience section.
  • References: a list of persons who write letters of recommendations for you, which includes their contact information.


Use common sense when formatting

There are no universal guidelines for how to format or organize a resume or CV. However, some commonsense guidelines may apply. If you are concerned that your resume or CV might appear too busy or misaligned, click on Print Preview in your word processing program and evaluate the consistency of your use of space in the document.

Fonts and font sizes: go with the flow

It is a good idea to stick to commonly used fonts such as Times New Roman or Arial when creating a resume or CV. Fonts such as Bauhaus or Old English Text might have their place in other writing projects, but these might distract the reader and pull their attention away from the content you want them to read. Perhaps with the exception of your name, the use of a uniform font size throughout the document will also keep the reader focused on your accomplishments.

Seek and evaluate examples

Many professors and professionals have posted their CVs and resumes to online faculty web pages, bulletin boards, and employee profile pages on corporate websites. These documents, often posted as Adobe PDF files, are useful templates for designing your own CV or resume. It is best to search for a CV or resume of an individual who shares your field, discipline, or interests, as it will provide you with a model that most closely approximates what your final document might look like.


University Career Services (

At University Career Services, located on the second floor of Hanes Hall, you will find a friendly staff and a thorough assortment of resources for creating and sharpening your CV or resume. Individual appointments and resume clinics are also available. In addition, the Career Services website includes an online resume creation tool (Optimal Resume™) that allows you to save a resume draft to work on over time at your convenience, and a number of handouts on job search strategies and writing CVs and resumes that are accessible by logging in with your UNC PID



Research Proposal Sample

By cscscholarship,

Here is sample of Research Proposal





Improving Competitive Advantage through Absorptive Capacity and Capabilities: An Empirical Analysis of Chinese Software Firms


(Course: Research Topics in Innovation Management)



Submitted By: Muhammad Shehzad Hanif

Applicant for Ph.D. Scholarship



School of Management & Economics

University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu.


Jan 15, 2013



Proposed Research Topic:“Improving Competitive Advantage through Absorptive Capacity and Capabilities: An Empirical Analysis of Chinese Software Firms”


1.0       Base of the Research

1.1       Background

Turbulent business environment and intense business competition lead to multifaceted challenges like globalization, demand for innovation, short product life cycles, product proliferation, and time to market pressures. These challenges affect IT industry in general and software industry in particular. Dealing with such issues requires firms to focus on ‘knowledge’, a dominant source of sustainable competitive advantage. Thus, recognizing, assimilating, transforming and applying valuable external knowledge is imperative for firms’ success. This ability of a firm is termed as absorptive capacity (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990).


The selection of this research area is justified through a research conducted by Roberts et al. (2012). The researchers find that only 98 papers are published during 1990 to 2008, which directly or indirectly include the concept of “absorptive capacity”. 37% papers use it as a minor citation, 50% use it as a theoretical support, 13% use it in research models, and 5% use it as a theoretical base. This shows that there are limited empirical studies that use absorptive capacity in research models. This justification lays the initial ground to conduct this study.


Undoubtedly, the firm’s ability of absorptive capacity is important for survival in a dynamic environment. It not only helps in anticipating varying innovation trends but also in taking advantage of emerging opportunities ahead of competitors.  However, organizational mechanisms and capabilities play an essential role in the successful development and maintenance of absorptive capacity; hence should not be ignored (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Justin et al., 2005). Many researches focus on different organizational mechanisms like cross functional interfaces, control systems, dominant values, connectedness, social relations etc. (Henderson and Cockburn, 1994; Verona, 1999; Zahra and George, 2002; Justin et al., 2005; Todorova and Durisin, 2007; Glutch et al., 2009).


In addition, modern information technologies (fast diffusion of computing and communications, internet based services, and content technologies) play a vital role in the development and maintenance of absorptive capacity. Firms are combining IT investments with complementary assets to create digital capabilities which enhances absorptive capacity (Gold et al., 2001). This construct has been debated in different IS researches like IT innovation (Fichman and Kemerrer, 1997), IT governance (Sambamurthy and Zmud, 1999), and IT business value (Bhatt and Grover, 2005). Despite of these studies, the empirical research integrating absorptive capacity in IS field is still lacking. Moreover, prior researches ignore the power of IT as a key organizational capability (Roberts et al. 2012).


Based on the above arguments, this study integrates the concept of absorptive capacity in IS field by combining IT capabilities and other organizational capabilities. Additionally, it proposes a framework for software firms (SFs) and intends to empirically investigate the impact of capabilities on absorptive capacity, which in turn, helps firms in achieving competitive advantage. The software firms are selected for the study as they continuously innovate due to technological breakthroughs. Likewise, they focus on their absorptive capacity to develop new software according to external customers’ requirements (Carlo et al., 2012).


1.2       Present Research Situation, Research Gap, and Further Development

Principally, Cohen and Levinthal’s (1990) research paper is the influential work on absorptive capacity. Later, other dominant researches are conducted by Szulanski (1996), Zahra and George (2002), Lane et al. (2006), and Todorova and Durisin (2007).  Cohen and Levinthal (1990) define absorptive capacity as a “firm’s ability to recognize valuable and new external knowledge, assimilate and transform this knowledge into the firm’s knowledge base, and then apply new knowledge through innovation and competitive actions”.


Two researches by Jansen et al. (2005) and Roberts et al. (2012) serve the basis to design the framework of this study. First, Jansen et al. (2005) examine the impact of organizational mechanisms on absorptive capacity.  According to the researchers, the organizational mechanisms are common features of three combinative capabilities namely coordination capabilities, systems capabilities, and socialization capabilities. The researchers do not add IT capability as a key organizational antecedent of absorptive capacity. However, they suggest future researchers to extend their framework by incorporating additional organizational antecedents.


Secondly, Robert et al. (2012) consider IT capability and two complementary organizational capabilities (coordination and socialization). The researchers propose a conceptual model based on the relationship of combined capabilities and absorptive capacity.  However, they suggest that future researchers may empirically test the model and add other capabilities like control mechanisms in their framework.


Finally, Jansen et al. (2005) and Robert et al. (2012) fail to investigate the consequences of absorptive capacity. Jansen et al. (2005) recommend later researches to add consequences such as flexibility, innovation etc. Therefore, this study attempts to fill the theoretical gap identified by both researches and combines IT and other organizational mechanisms in their given frameworks. Also, competitive advantage is added as a consequence of absorptive capacity.


Besides filling the theoretical gap, this study contributes practically by focusing on Software Industry in China. Software industry faces intense competition, globalization, and technological breakthroughs. These challenges put a constant burden on software firms (SFs) not only to innovate with internet based services but also enhance their ability of absorptive capacity to develop new software according to changing customers’ needs (Carlo et al., 2012). Furthermore, the massive yearly growth rate of Chinese software firms (Yuan, 2012) directs author’s attention to design a framework that helps in improving their innovation, strategic flexibility, and performance.


Base on the theoretical and practical gaps identified above, this study is an attempt to integrate the concept of absorptive capacity in IS field. It combines IT and other organizational capabilities (coordination, control systems, and socialization) in a single framework and intends to analyze the role of these capabilities in enhancing firm’s ability of absorptive capacity. This ability, in turn, affects competitive advantage of the Chinese software firms.




1.3       Significance of the Study

As indicated, the absorptive capacity leverages firm’s ability to gain competitive advantage in today’s challenging and demanding business environment, which leads to shorter product life cycles and dynamic product proliferation. This is especially the case with software industry. Therefore, this study focuses on software firms (SFs) in China, which develops software and related services for external customers.


This study helps Chinese SFs and their managers in understanding the importance of combining organizational capabilities and IT resources before investing in innovative projects. Due to technological breakthroughs these SFs face cognitive burden to enhance ability to identify, assimilate, and mobilize valuable knowledge related to the development of new software according to market demands. The combined IT, coordination, systems, and socialization capabilities can reduce this burden. Finally, this study gives SFs a road map for improving their innovation, flexibility, and business performance, hence, achieving competitive advantage.


2.0       Research Objectives, Research Questions, and Research Contents

2.1       Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To provide a holistic view by combining firms’ IT capabilities with other capabilities: coordination, systems, and socialization in a single study.
  2. To investigate the degree to which Chinese software firms are successful in maximizing their ability of absorptive capacity and competitive advantage by exercising combined capabilities.
  • To propose and empirically test a framework of capabilities and absorptive capacity of Chinese software firms.


2.2       Research Questions

The research questions of this study are:

  1. What is the impact of IT and other combinative capabilities (coordination, systems, and socialization) on firms’ ability of potential absorptive capacity (PACAP)?
  2. How do IT and other combinative capabilities affect firms’ ability of realized absorptive capacity (RACAP)?
  • What is the impact of potential and realized absorptive capacity on competitive advantage of Chinese software firms?
  1. How does absorptive capacity mediate the relationship between capabilities and competitive advantage?


2.3       Main Contents

The proposed framework of this study is based on four major constructs: IT capabilities, combinative capabilities, absorptive capacity, and competitive advantage. These constructs are explained briefly:


2.3.1    IT Capabilities

Based on the work of Wade and Hulland (2004), Roberts et al. (2012) conceptualize three different types of IT capabilities. These are outside-in, inside-out, and spanning capabilities. Outside-in capabilities are outward facing which help firms in building knowledge identification capability. Inside-out are inward focused capabilities which help firms in developing knowledge application capability. Whereas, spanning integrates the first two capabilities and helps firms in building assimilation and transformation capabilities.


2.3.2    Organizational Mechanisms associated with Different Combinative Capabilities

Justin et al. (2005) identifies various organizational mechanisms associated with each combinative capability: coordination, systems, and socialization. The details of these mechanisms are below:

  1. Coordination Capabilities: organizational mechanisms that facilitate coordination capabilities are cross functional interfaces, job rotation, and participation in decision making (Henderson and Cockburn, 1994).
  2. Systems Capabilities: common features of these capabilities are formalization and routinization (Galunic and Rodan, 1998).
  • Socialization capabilities: common features of socialization capabilities are connectedness and socialization tactics (Adler and Kwon, 2002).


2.3.3          Absorptive Capacity

Absorptive Capacity is defined as the firm’s ability to identify valuable and new external knowledge, then assimilate or transform this knowledge into the firm’s existing knowledge base, and finally apply this knowledge to commercial ends through competitive actions and innovation (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Zahra and George, 2002; Lane et al. 2006). Absorptive capacity is further divided into potential absorptive capacity (PACAP) and realized absorptive capacity (RACAP). PACAP focuses on new knowledge acquisition and its assimilation. Whereas, RACAP focuses on transformation and exploitation of new knowledge in business operations (Zahra and George, 2002).


2.3.4    Competitive Advantage

Competitive advantage measures the output or benefits received from firm’s ability of absorptive capacity. Cohen and Levinthal (1990), Zahra and George (2002), and Todorova and Durisin (2007) assess competitive advantage by measuring firms’ flexibility, innovation performance, and business performance.


3.0       Research Program

3.1       Methodology and Data Collection

In order to achieve the stated objectives, the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) will be used which seems to be the most suitable and fitted technique. The study intends to explore the relationships between capabilities, absorptive capacity, and competitive advantage. The study will incorporate the primary data in order to offer in-depth discussion for the academicians/ practitioners and helping them to understand the existing issue. The primary data for the study will be collected through structured questionnaires.


The population of the present study focuses on software firms (SFs) in China, which develops software and related services for external customers. There are multiple reasons for selection of SFs. First, Chinese software industry is rapidly growing. According to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the size of the software industry in 2011 hit a record of more than $60 billion, a 40% year-by-year increase (Yuan, 2012). Secondly, SFs face continuous challenges of globalization and technology breakthroughs. Such challenges forces SFs not only to keep innovating but also enhance their ability to recognize, assimilate, transform, and exploit knowledge to develop new software (Carlo et al., 2012). The sample data will be collected from the top managers working in Chinese software firms using purposive sampling technique.



3.2       Technical Road Map of Research and Time Plan

The sample data will be collected from the managers of the software firms that achieved revenue of atleast 100 million RMB. According to a survey, there are 984 software firms in China who achieved this benchmark (Jin, 2009). Purposive sampling technique will be applied as the aim is to collect expert opinion from the top management of each firm.


Before sending final questionnaires to the managers it will be pre-tested through academic reviews/ opinions, and discussions with business experts for confirming face and content validity. The author will also conduct pilot testing and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to check the discriminant validity. For data gathering, company’s managers will be contacted through telephonic calls, emails, or through letters for their participation in the survey. After their affirmative responses, the questionnaires will be mailed to them. The software packages like AMOS, SPSS, Microsoft Excel, etc, will be used and finally, results will be analyzed.


As the researcher intends to collect data from 984 software firms spread all over in China, it may take atleast six months for final data collection (with an appropriate response rate) and data analysis.


4.0       Novelty of this Research

As indicated in section 1.0, this research is novel as it fulfills the gaps identified Jansen et al. (2005) and Robert et al. (2012). The study combines IT capabilities with other organizational capabilities like coordination, control systems, and socialization in a single study. Secondly, it adds competitive advantage as a consequence of absorptive capacity in the frameworks proposed by both researches. Finally, it empirically explores a mediating role of potential and realized absorptive capacity between capabilities and competitive advantage.

5.0       Possible Achievements

The study will have its practical implications for Chinese software firms. It is hoped that the present study will provide a roadmap for successful investments in innovation projects. This roadmap will simplify the process of building absorptive capacities and developing new software according to the changing demands of market/ external customers. Before undergoing a risky and costly project, the managers of SFS should emphasize on combined efforts of IT, coordination, systems, and socialization capabilities. These integrated capabilities make it easy to develop and maintain absorptive capacity and improve firm’s innovation, flexibility, and overall performance.


Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27, 17–40.


Bhatt, G. D., & Grover, V. (2005). Capabilities and their role in competitive advantage: An empirical study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22 (2), 253-277.


Carlo, J. L., Lyytinen, K., & Rose, G. M. (2012). A knowledge-based model of radical innovation in small software firms. MIS Quarterly, 36 (30), 865-895.


Cohen, M. W., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.


Fichman, R. G., & Kemerer, C. F. (1997). The assimilation of software process innovations: An organizational learning perspective. Management Science, 43 (10), 1345-1363.


Galunic, D. C., & Rodan, S. (1998). Resource recombinations in the firm: Knowledge structures and the potential for Schumpeterian innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 19, 1193–1201.


Gluch, P., Gustafsson, M., & Thuvander, L. (2009). An absorptive capacity model for green innovation and performance in the construction industry. Construction Management and Economics, 27, 451-464.


Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18 (1), 185-214.


Henderson, R., & Cockburn, I. (1994). Measuring competence? Exploring firm effects in pharmaceutical research. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 63–84.


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